WHAT IS THE FUNCTION OF A GRAND JURY?It’s easy for me to sit here in the comfort of my home and weigh in on the situation unfolding in Ferguson. First and foremost we want to take this moment to send a shot out to the parents of Reginald Brown. It is a tragedy when we are still plagued with ignorance and racism at this day and age. What we plan to do is touch on a few topics which are in dire need of explanations. Lets look closely at what goes into a GRAND JURY and what its function is. We also are going to define what “DEADLY FORCE” AND WHY WE SHOULD BE CONCERNED ABOUT THE TRACKING LANGUAGE OF IT’S MEANING RATHER THAN THE ACTIONS TAKEN BY BIAS POLICE OFFICERS.GRAND JURYThe purpose of the grand jury is not to determine guilt or innocence, but to decide whether there is probable cause to prosecute someone for a felony crime. The grand jury operates in secrecy and the normal rules of evidence do not apply. The prosecutor runs the proceedings and no judge is present.– ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE GRAND JURYThe grand jury has a long and honorable tradition. It was recognized in the Magna Carta, the first English constitutional document, which King John granted in 1215 at the demand of his subjects. The first English grand jury consisted of twelve men selected from the knights or other freemen, who were summoned to inquire into crimes alleged to have been committed in their local community. Thus, grand jurors originally functioned as accusers or witnesses, rather than as judges.Over the years, the hallmarks of our modern grand jury developed in England. For example, grand jury proceedings became secret, and the grand jury became independent of the Crown. As a result, a grand jury is able to vote an indictment or refuse to do so, as it deems proper, without regard to the recommendations of judge, prosecutor, or any other person. This independence from the will of the government was achieved only after a long hard fight. It can best be illustrated by the celebrated English case involving the Earl of Shaftasbury, who, in 1681, fell under the suspicion of the Crown. Displeased with him, the Crown presented to the grand jury a proposed bill of indictment for high treason and recommended that it be voted and returned. After hearing the witnesses, the grand jury voted against the bill of indictment and returned it to the King,
holding that it was not true.– A GRAND JURY’S TASKThe Grand Jury’s Tasks As stated above, the federal grand jury’s function is to determine whether a person shall be tried for a serious federal crime alleged to have been committed within the district where it sits. Matters may be brought to its attention in three ways:(1) by the United States Attorney or an Assistant United States Attorney;
(2) by the court that impaneled it; and
(3) from the personal knowledge of a member of the grand jury or from matters properly brought to a member’s personal attention. In all these cases, the grand jury must hear evidence before taking action.
After it has received evidence against a person, the grand jury must decide whether the evidence presented justifies an indictment, or “true bill,” which is the formal criminal charge returned by the grand jury. Upon the indictment’s being filed in court, the person accused must either plead guilty or nolo contendere or stand trial.
If the evidence does not persuade the grand jury that there is probable cause to believe the person committed a
crime, the grand jury will vote a “no bill,” or “not a true bill.” When this occurs, the person is not required to
plead to a criminal charge, and no trial is required.DEADLY FORCE
An amount of force that is likely to cause either serious bodily injury or death to another person.
Police officers may use deadly force in specific circumstances when they are trying to enforce the law. Private citizens may use deadly force in certain circumstances in SELF DEFENSE. The rules governing the use of deadly force for police officers are different from those for citizens.
During the twelfth century, the COMMON LAW allowed the police to use deadly force if they needed it to capture a felony suspect, regardless of the circumstances. At that time, felonies were not as common as they are now and were usually punishable by death. Also, law officers had a more difficult time capturing suspects because they did not have the technology and weaponry that are present in today’s world. In modern times, the courts have restricted the use of deadly force to certain, dangerous situations.
In police jargon, deadly force is also referred to as shoot to kill. The Supreme Court has ruled that, depending on the circumstances, if an offender resists arrest, police officers may use as much force as is reasonably required to overcome the resistance. Whether the force is reasonable is determined by the judgment of a reasonable officer at the scene, rather than by hindsight. Because police officers can find themselves in dangerous or rapidly changing situations where split second decisions are necessary, the judgment of someone at the scene is vital when looking back at the actions of a police officer.
The Supreme Court has defined the “objective reasonableness” standard as a balance between the rights of the person being arrested and the government interests that allow the use of force. The FOURTH AMENDMENT protects U.S. citizens from unreasonable searches and seizures, the category into which an arrest falls. The Supreme Court has said that a SEARCH AND SEIZURE is reasonable if it is based on PROBABLE CAUSE and if it does not unreasonably intrude on the rights and privacy of the individual. This standard does not question a police officer’s intent or motivation for using deadly force during an arrest; it only looks at the situation as it has happened.
For deadly force to be constitutional when an arrest is taking place, it must be the reasonable choice under all the circumstances at the time.Therefore, deadly force should be looked at as an option that is used when it is believed that no other action will succeed. The MODEL PENAL CODE, although not adopted in all states, restricts police action regarding deadly force. According to the code, officers should not use deadly force unless the action will not endanger innocent bystanders, the suspect used deadly force in committing the crime, or the officers believe a delay in arrest may result in injury or death to other people.
Circumstances that are taken into consideration are the severity of the offense, how much of a threat the suspect poses, and the to resist or flee the police officer. When arresting someone for a misdemeanor, the police have the right to shoot the alleged offender only in self-defense. If an officer shoots a suspect accused of a misdemeanor for a reason other than self-defense, the officer can be held liable for criminal charges and damages for injuries to the suspect. This standard was demonstrated in the Iowa case of Klinkel v. Saddler,211 Iowa 368, 233 N.W. 538 (1930), where a sheriff faced a WRONGFUL DEATH lawsuit because he had killed a misdemeanor suspect during an arrest. The sheriff said he had used deadly force to defend himself, and the court ruled in his favor.
I don’t know how many times we have to revisit this situation and think for one moment it’s going to change itself. The laws in this country are written in a way that it always protects the hierarchy. It’s difficult to bring a civil action against individual operating behind the corporate veil, let alone mount a defense against an over zealous cop once he has set his mind a subject is a “threat”. The laws in this country are too ambiguous and typically affect the poorest in society. It’s a damn shame a persons liberty rest in his or her ability to afford an attorney to represent them once the government has brought up charges against them. I realize the constitution of the United States guarantees each citizens an attorney in criminal cases. But when has it been customary for an employee to fight against the hand that feeds them? This is Maestro man…Amplify the Mumble!
Tags: AMBIGUITY, Bias System of Government, BIGOTRY, City Ordinance, Common Law, Curfew, Ex post facto clause, Grand Jury, Judge, La Riots, LOOTING, Magna Carta, peaceful protest, PROTEST, PROTESTERS, racism, Stand your ground, Statutory Law, Up risings, VIOLENCE
Tags: 99 Problems, Federal Government, Grand Jury Decision, Indictment, La Riots, mo ferguson, New Development, PEACEFUL DEMONSTRATION, Police brutality in America, PROTEST, Riot, Rodney King, SIX GUN SHOTS FIRED INTO MICHAEL BROWN, Verdict
In light of the protest and riots following the Rodney King verdict, the United States are on high alert awaiting the decision of the Grand Jury out of MO, Ferguson in the shooting death of Michael Brown.
A white police officer will not face charges for fatally shooting an unarmed black teenager in a case that set off violent protests and racial unrest throughout the nation, an attorney close to the case said Monday night.
A St. Louis County grand jury declined to indict officer Darren Wilson, 28, for firing six shots in an August confrontation that killed 18-year-old Michael Brown, said Benjamin Crump, an attorney for the family. The decision had been long awaited and followed rioting that resembled war-zone news footage in this predominantly black suburb of St. Louis.
Missouri Gov. Jay Nixon, a Democrat, called for calm after calling up National Guard troops to stand by in case of unrest. Speaking before the decision was announced, he urged that “regardless of the decision, people on all sides show tolerance, mutual respect and restraint.”
Crowds gathered around the Ferguson police headquarters in anticipation of the announcement at the courthouse in Clayton, Mo., another St. Louis suburb.
The 12-person grand jury had been considering whether probable cause existed to bring charges against Wilson, 28, the white officer who fatally shot Brown, an 18-year-old black man, after their Aug. 9 confrontation. The shooting inflamed tensions in a largely minority community that is patrolled by an overwhelmingly white police force.
Brown’s lifeless and bleeding body lay for more than four hours in a Ferguson residential street after the shooting, prompting dismay and anger as a crowd gathered. Protests turned into rioting and looting the following night, and police responded with armored vehicles and tear gas, triggering a nationwide debate over police tactics.
The 12-person grand jury, including nine whites and three African Americans, had been meeting in secret for months, hearing evidence and weighing whether Wilson’s should face charges that could have ranged from involuntary manslaughter to murder.
Brown’s family joined thousands of protesters to demand Wilson’s arrest. As anger at official inaction grew following Brown’s death, protesters clashed with police, who began patrolling the streets with military-grade weapons and armored vehicles.
Wilson has been on paid leave and largely invisible since the shooting.
While the grand jury met in secret to hear evidence in the case, two starkly different versions of the events leading to the shooting emerged in media accounts.
Police have said a scuffle broke out after Wilson asked Brown and a friend to move out of the street. Wilson told investigators he shot Brown only after the teenager reached for the officer’s gun. Some witnesses
said Brown had run away from Wilson, then turned and raised his hands in the air in a gesture of surrender before he was shot in the head and chest.
ASHANTI PUBLISHING GROUP / www.ashantipublishinggroup.com
RUNNING FROM THE PAST / BOOK TRAILER
TYESHIA CLINTON, AUTHOR
Tags: Aircraft hijacking, Ashanti Publishing Group, Cuba-United States race relations, Cuban law, Government, homeland security, Muhammad Jalal Deen Akbar, Non-Fiction, Risk Factor, Security, Terrorism, True Story, TSA, U.S and Cuba, U.S. Airports
Author: MUHAMMAD JALAL DEEN AKBAR
ASHANTI PUBLISHING GROUP
RESERVE A COPY!
Aircraft hijacking incidents between the United States and Cuba were at their height between 1968 and 1972. These incidents have variously been attributed to terrorism, extortion, flight for political asylum, mental illness and transportation between the two countries as a result of the ongoing antagonistic Cuba-United States relations.Subsequent measures by both governments contributed to a gradual reduction of reported incidents towards the mid-1970s. Governmental measures included an amendment to Cuban law which made hijacking a crime in 1970, the introduction of metal detectors in U.S. airports in 1973, and a joint agreement between the U.S. and Cuba signed in Sweden to return or prosecute hijackers.
Below is a non-comprehensive list of hijacking incidents of aircraft between Cuba and the United States.
- April 12, 1958 The crew of a Cuban Airlines DC-3 with 12 passengers on board, diverted their flight fromHavana to Santa Clara in Central Cuba, and flew, instead, to Miami, Florida. One of the passengers, United Press reporter Harold Lidin, said that the decision to defect was apparently made after take off.
- November 1, 1958 A Cubana Vickers Viscount en route from Miami to Varadero to Havana was hijacked by Cuban militants. The hijackers were trying to land at Sierra Cristal in Eastern Cuba to deliver weapons to Raúl Castro‘s rebels. As night approached, the plane ran out of fuel and tried an emergency landing at the Preston sugar mill. It did not make it and instead landed in the ocean and broke apart, killing most passengers and crew. There were six survivors.
- April 15, 1959 A plane is hijacked from Cuba to Miami. The hijackers were four members of Batista’s Army (three were from the SIM—the Military Intelligence—and one was an aviation mechanic). The airplane is returned by the U.S.
- May 1, 1961 Antulio Ramirez Ortiz hijacks a National Airlines flight from Miami International Airport to Cuba.
- March 27, 1966 Angel María Betancourt Cueto, armed with a pistol, tries to hijack a plane from Santiago de Cuba to Havana, with 97 persons, in an attempt to reach the U.S. The pilot, Fernando Álvarez Pérez, opposed the hijacking and landed in Havana. The hijacker then killed Álvarez and armed guard Edor Reyes, seriously wounding the copilot Evans Rosales. The event had a large effect on Cubans. The hijacker later was caught and executed.
- November 20, 1967 Louis Gabor Babler, born in Hungary, successfully hijacks a Crescent Airline Piper Apache from Hollywood, Florida to Cuba; the plane was scheduled to go to the Bahamas.
- February 17, 1968 Thomas J. Boynton hijacks a private charter Piper Apache from Marathon, Florida to Cuba. He returned to the United States via Canada on November 1, 1969 and was sentenced to 20 years for kidnapping.
- February 21 Lawrence Rhodes hijacked a Delta Air Lines DC-8 from Tampa, Florida to Cuba with 108 other crew and passengers aboard, including golfer Barbara Romack. Cuban authorities provided the passengers with lemonade, coffee, cigarettes, and pictures of Che Guevara and the plane was released after three hours. Rhodes surrendered in Spain on February 10, 1970. A January 4, 1971 hijacking charge against him is dismissed; he was committed to a mental institution; on July 8, 1971 he returns to prison; he is sentenced to 25 years for robbery on July 17, 1972.
- March 12 Three Cubans hijack a DC-8 from Tampa, Florida to Cuba; all are fugitives.
- July 1 Velasquez Fonseca, born in Cuba, hijacks a Boeing 727 from Chicago to Cuba.
- July 12 Leonard Bendicks hijacks a Cessna 210 from Key West, Florida, to Cuba. He is deported to the U.S. in September 1968. On March 4, 1971, he is sentenced to 10 years for kidnapping.
- July 17 Hernandez Leyva, a Cuban, hijacks a DC-8 from Los Angeles to Cuba.
- August 4 Jessie Willis hijacks a Cessna 182 from Naples, Florida to Cuba; he returns voluntarily via Mexico on January 10, 1969; he is sentenced to 10 years for kidnapping; he is paroled on July 28, 1971.
- August 22 Bill McBride hijacks a Cessna 336 from Nassau to Cuba.
- October 23 Alben Truitt, the grandson of former U.S. Vice President Alben Barkley, hijacks a Cessna 177 from Key West to Cuba; he returns via Canada in February 1969; he is sentenced to 20 years for aircraft piracy and 20 years for kidnapping (to run consecutively).
- November 4 Raymond Johnson hijacks a Boeing 727 from New Orleans to Cuba.
- November 23 Five Cubans hijack a Boeing 727 from Chicago to Cuba.
- November 24 Three Cubans hijack a Boeing 707 from New York to Cuba.
- November 30 Montesino Sanchez, a Cuban, hijacks a Boeing 720 from Miami to Cuba.
- December 5 Eduardo Castera hijacks a Boeing 727 from Tampa to Cuba.
- December 11 Two men hijack a DC-8 from St. Louis to Cuba.
- January 2, 1969 Two Americans, a man and woman, hijack a DC-8 from New York to Cuba. The man was killed while the woman is still a fugitive.
- January 9 Ronald Bohle, a 21-year-old Purdue University student, hijacks a Boeing 727 from Miami to Cuba; he returns via Canada on November 1, 1969, and is sentenced to 20 years for air piracy on July 6, 1972.
- January 11 A man hijacks a 727 from Jacksonville, Florida to Cuba; he returns via Canada on May 5, 1969; he is acquitted of air piracy and kidnapping on grounds of temporary insanity.
- January 13 A man unsuccessfully attempts to hijack a Convair 880 from Detroit to Cuba; he is sentenced on July 31, 1969, to 15 years for interference with a flight crew; he had a history of mental illness.
- January 17 A man from the Dominican Republic hijacks a DC-8 from New York to Cuba.
- January 24, 1969 A man hijacks a Boeing 727 from Key West to Cuba; he was a 19-year-old Navy deserter who “didn’t want to go to Vietnam“.
- January 28 Two men successfully hijack a DC-8 from Los Angeles to Cuba; they are prison escapees.
- January 31 Allan Sheffield hijacks a DC-8 from San Francisco to Cuba; he says he is “tired of TV dinners and tired of seeing people starve in the world”.
- February 3 A 21-year old student and his girlfriend attempt to hijack a plane from New York City to Cuba; when the pilot refuels in Miami, the hijackers allow the passengers to deplane; the police capture the hijackers.
- February 3 Two Cubans hijack a 727 from Newark, New Jersey, to Cuba.
- February 10 A man born in Cuba hijacks a DC-8 from Atlanta to Cuba.
- February 25 A man hijacks a DC-8 from Atlanta to Cuba; he surrenders to U.S. authorities in Prague, CSR, in September 1969; he is sentenced to life imprisonment on July 7, 1970.
- March 6 Black Panther Tony Bryant (d. 1999 at 60) hijacks a National Airlines plane en route from New York to Miami and directed it to Cuba. He was arrested in Cuba and spent 10 years in a Cuban prison after being suspected of being a CIA agent. The US Government pardoned Bryant after his return in 1980. His 1984 book “Hijack” described his experience in Cuban prisons.
- March 17 A man hijacks an airliner from Atlanta to Cuba; he returns via Canada on November 1, 1969; he is committed to a mental institution on February 1, 1972; he is released on second 18-month furlough on December 5, 1973.
- March 19 A man tries to hijack a CV-880 from Dallas to Cuba; he ends up in New Orleans; charges are dismissed due to insanity.
- March 26 A man hijacked a Delta Air Lines Flight 821 (DC-8) from Dallas, Tex. bringing all 114 passengers to Havana, Cuba, many of which were active duty military.
- May 5 Jean-Pierre Charette and Alain Alard (members of the Front de Libération du Québec) successfully hijack a Boeing 727 from New York to Cuba.
- May 23 Three men born in Cuba successfully hijack a 727 from Miami to Cuba.
- June 17 A man hijacks a 707 from Oakland to Cuba.
- June 22 A man born in Cuba hijacks a DC-8 from Newark, N.J., to Cuba.
- June 25 A man successfully hijacks a DC-8 from Los Angeles to Cuba.
- June 28 A man successfully hijacks a 727 from Baltimore to Cuba. He returns via Canada in November 1969; he is sentenced to 15 years for interference with a flight crew on October 6, 1970.
- July 26 A man hijacks a DC-8 from El Paso, Texas, to Cuba. He returns via Canada on November 1, 1969; he is sentenced to 50 years for aircraft piracy on September 14, 1970.
- July 31 A man successfully hijacks a 727 from Pittsburgh to Cuba.
- August 5 A man unsuccessfully tries to hijack a DC-9 from Philadelphia to Cuba; charges are dismissed on January 12, 1970; he is committed to a mental institution; he is discharged on September 15, 1971.
- August 14 Two Cubans hijack a 727 from Boston to Cuba.
- August 29 A Cuban hijacks a 727 from Miami to Cuba.
- September 7 A man hijacks a DC-8 from New York to Cuba.
- September 10 A Puerto Rican unsuccessfully tries to hijack a DC-8 (scheduled for San Juan) to Cuba; he is committed to mental institution on January 30, 1970; he is released in December 1971.
- September 24 A Cuban hijacks a DC-8 from Charleston, South Carolina to Cuba.
- October 9 A man hijacks a DC-8 from Los Angeles to Cuba.
- October 21 A man hijacks a Boeing 720 from Mexico City to Cuba. He committed suicide in Cuba on September 28, 1970.
- November 4 Two armed men seize a Nicaraguan airliner en route from Miami to Mexico; they divert it to Cuba.
- December 26 M. Martinez (alias) hijacks a 727 from New York to Cuba.
- February 16, 1970 A man who was born in Cuba, with wife and two children, successfully hijacks a 727 from Newark to Cuba.
- March 11 A man hijacks a 727 from Cleveland to Cuba; he is imprisoned in Cuba for attempting to escape; he is fatally shot escaping from prison on March 26, 1973.
- April 22 In 1966 Ira David Meeks was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia. April 1970 he hijacked a plane on a sightseeing tour with his wife pulling a gun at the pilot demanding to be flown to Cuba. Meeks told Cuban authorities “he felt persecuted as a black man in America and had heard that things would be better in Cuba.” Cuba suspected him of being a spy and deported him 1976. On arrival he was arrested for the hijacking by the FBI. He was freed in 1981 after spending years in jail and a mental hospital.
- May 25 A man successfully hijacks a 727 from Chicago to Cuba.
- July 1 George Lopez hijacks a DC-8 from Las Vegas to Cuba.
- August 2 A man hijacks a Pan American World Airways 747 bound for San Juan from New York to Cuba. This was the first hijacking of the newly introducedBoeing 747 to Cuba and Premiere Fidel Castro came out to Havana’s José Martí Airport to see the new airliner for himself. Castro reportedly met in person with the Pan Am pilot Captain Augustus Watkins and expressed concerns over the ability of the big plane to take off safely from the small airport but was reassured by the Pan Am captain.
- August 19 Three men (two born in Cuba, one born in Spain) hijack a DC-3 from Newark to Cuba (the plane’s destination was San Juan).
- August 20 A man successfully hijacks a DC-9 from Atlanta to Cuba.
- September 19 A man successfully hijacks an Allegheny Airlines 727 from Pittsburgh to Cuba with a pistol and home made bomb.  
- October 30 L. Rosas hijacks a DC-8 from Miami to Cuba.
- November 1 A man born in Mexico successfully hijacks a 727 from San Diego to Cuba; he has two children with him.
- November 13 A man hijacks an airliner from Raleigh to Cuba.
- December 19 A man attempts to hijack a DC-9 from Albuquerque to Cuba. He is taken into custody at Tulsa; he is sentenced to 5 years subject to a medical mental examination for conveying false information about an attempt to commit air piracy.
- January 22, 1971 A man successfully hijacks a 727 from Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to Cuba; he would have gone to Algeria, if possible.
- February 4 A man successfully hijacks a DC-9 from Chicago to Cuba.
- February 25 A man successfully hijacks a 727 from San Francisco to Cuba or Canada; he ends up in Canada; he is deported on March 8, 1971; he is sentenced to 10 years for interference with a flight crew.
- March 31 A man born in Venezuela successfully hijacks a DC-8 from New York to Cuba; he returns to the United States via Bermuda on October 8, 1974.
- April 5 A former Cuban hijacks a Cessna 402 from Key West to Cuba.
- July 11 A Cubana de Aviación aircraft is hijacked at Cienfuegos, Cuba (Cienfuegos Airport) resulting in one fatality. The two hijackers were taken down and the hijacking lasted less than one day.
- July 24 A man born in Cuba successfully hijacks a DC-8 from Miami to Cuba, a stewardess and a passenger are wounded.
- September 3 A man born in Cuba, attempts to hijack a plane from Chicago to Cuba; he is sentenced to 20 years for interference with a flight crew on March 6, 1972.
- October 9 A man forces his way aboard a 727 in Detroit and hijacks it to Cuba.
- October 18 A man born in Canada, unsuccessfully attempts to hijack a Boeing 737 from Anchorage to Cuba; the attempt ends in Vancouver; he is deported to the United States on October 19, 1971, and is sentenced to 20 years for air piracy on May 12, 1972.
- October 25 A man born in Puerto Rico successfully hijacks a Boeing 747 from New York to Cuba; the plane was bound for San Juan.
- October 29 A man, his two sons, and a third youth hijack an Eastern Airlines jet from Houston to Havana. They kill a ticket agent during seizure of plane.
- November 24 Three members of the group “Republic of New Afrika” who had murdered a New Mexico State Policeman on November 8 hijacked TWA Flight 106, a Boeing 727, from Albuquerque to Havana. Passengers were released in Tampa.
- January 7, 1972 A man and a woman hijack a 727 from San Francisco to Cuba.
- March 7 Two men force their way aboard a Chalk’s Flying Service Grumman 73 (G/A) in Miami, Florida, wounding the pilot, a mechanic, and a bystander. They hijack the plane to Cuba.
- March 19 A man and a woman successfully hijack a Cessna 206 from Key West to Cuba.
- May 4–6 Michael Hansen hijacks a Boeing 737 flight from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles; he wants to go to Hanoi or Cuba; he goes to Cuba.
- October 29 Four men force their way aboard an aircraft. They kill a ticket agent, wound a ramp serviceman, and hijack a plane to Cuba.
- November 10 Melvin C. Cale, Louis Cale, and Henry D. Jackson, Jr. successfully hijack Southern Airways Flight 49 from Birmingham to multiple locations in the United States, including Cleveland, Ohio, Knoxville, Tennessee, and Chattanooga, Tennessee; Toronto, Canada, and finally to Cuba with $2 million in ransom (actual cash, Presidential “grant” totaled $10 million) and 10 parachutes. Co-pilot Harold is shot and wounded by the hijackers; they threaten to crash the plane into one of the Oak Ridge nuclear installations; at McCoy Air Force Base, in Orlando, the FBI shoots out two tires; the hijackers force pilot William Haas to take off; the DC-9 finally lands on a (partially) foam-covered runway in Havana; Jackson and Louis Cale are sentenced in Cuba to 20 years, Melvin Cale to 15 years, then returned to the United States to face further charges. This incident leads to a brief treaty between the U.S. and Cuba to extradite hijackers, not renewed. Haas’s story commemorated in the Reader’s Digest book People in Peril 
- December 14, 1974 Robin Harrison charters a plane by phone. On arrival at the airport office in Tampa, he points gun at the pilot of a Piper Seneca and demands a flight to Cuba.
- March 13, 1978 Hijacker Clay Thomas, hijacked United Flight 696 out of San Francisco. He claimed to have a high explosive filled pipe bomb and wanted to go to Cuba. Flight 696 landed at Oakland and after the passengers and cabin crew disembarked, began fueling for the flight to Cuba. Surrounded by police cars, Thomas panicked, stopped the refueling and forced the crew to take off.
- En route, Flight 696 landed in Denver to take on more fuel. While waiting for the fuel truck, the crew escaped the cockpit by jumping from the open cockpit windows. Without hostages, Thomas quickly surrendered to the FBI.
- The Seattle based crew,which included Captain Alan Grout, First Officer Jack Bard, and Second Officer Luke Warfield were all injured during the escape. They subsequently recovered and returned to flight duty during the following months.
- June 12, 1979 Delta Air Lines Flight 1061, an L-1011 piloted by Captain Vince Doda, is hijacked by Eduardo Guerra Jimenez, a former Cuban air force pilot who had hijacked a MIG jet to the United States 10 years earlier.
- September 13, 1980 A Delta Air Lines from New Orleans, bound for Atlanta, is hijacked. The pilot flew to Havana, the hijackers were removed from the plane and the flight, with 81 passengers, continued to Atlanta.
- March 27, 1984 William Potts hijacked a Piedmont Airlines flight originally destined to leave from Newark, N.J. and to land in Miami, Fla.. Potts identified himself as Lt. Spartacus of the Black Liberation Army and forced the pilot to fly to Havana, Cuba, claiming to have explosives on the airplane. Cuban officials arrested Potts, who then served 13 years in a Cuban prison for air piracy.
- December 31, 1984 An American Airlines DC-10 from Saint Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands (STX) bound for New York City (JFK) is hijacked to Havana. The whereabouts of the hijacker (Ismail La Beet) is unknown.
- March 11, 1987 A Cubana de Aviación Antonov 24RV (CU-T1262) on a scheduled domestic passenger flight from Nueva Gerona (Rafael Cabrera Airport), Cuba is hijacked. The hijacker was taken down and there was one fatality.
- February 4, 1992 Luis Rodríguez hijacks a plane from Cuba with other eight people. The plane ran out of fuel and fell to the sea near the Florida keys. There were no survivors.
- November 15, 1993 Alvarez Manuel & Alvaro Dominguez flew a Russian-built AN-2 biplane on a four-hour, zig-zag course to confuse Cuban radar. Guided by a U.S. Coast Guard interceptor, he landed just before dawn at Opa-Locka Airport just north of Miami.
- June 7, 1996 Lieutenant Colonel José Fernández Pupo hijacks a Cubana An-2 with 10 passengers, flying from Bayamo to Santiago de Cuba, demanding at gunpoint to land in Guantanamo Bay Naval Base. On May 29, 1997 he was declared not guilty by U.S. courts.
- July 26, 1996 An Iberia Airlines jumbo jet flying from Madrid to Havana with 286 people aboard is forced to land in Miami by a man brandishing scissors and a fake bomb. No one is injured.
- August 16, 1996 Commercial pilot Adel Given Ulloa and two other workers of Aerotaxi, Leonardo Reyes and José Roberto Bello, force pilot Adolfo Pérez Pantoja to fly to the United States. The plane ran out of fuel in the Florida Straits and fell to the sea 50 km south of Fort Myers. They were collected by a Russian ship. The three were declared not guilty of hijacking by a court in Tampa. All remained in the U.S.
- September 19, 2000 – An Antonov An-2 crashes into the sea west of Cuba. Cuban authorities said the plane was hijacked after take-off from Pinar del Río.
- July 31, 2001 – John Milo Reese steals a plane from Florida Keys Marathon Airport with the reported intention of delivering a pizza to Fidel Castro in an attempt to kidnap the Cuban leader. After crash-landing on a Cuban beach, he was returned to the United States, where he was convicted of transporting a stolen aircraft, and was sentenced to six months in jail. In a later interview, he admitted to being slightly intoxicated and having lost his bearings in the air.
- August 14, 2001 – An elderly couple attempts to hijack a plane and force the pilot to fly to Cuba. In the ensuing scuffle the plane crashed into the sea near Florida and the couple drowned.
- November 11, 2002 – A Cuban An-2 aircraft, registration No. CU-C1086, is hijacked. The plane landed at the Pinar del Río airport before flying to Key West in Florida.
- March 19, 2003 – Six men, some armed with knives, take control of a Cuban state airline plane as it heads to Havana from Cuba’s Isle of Youth. U.S. Air Force fighter jets intercepted the DC-3 plane, run by Cuban state airline Aerotaxi, shortly before it reached Florida late on Wednesday evening. The U.S. jets then escorted the plane to Key West’s airport, where the suspects surrendered without incident.
- March 31, 2003 – A Cuban airliner is successfully hijacked to Key West with 32 people on board.
- April 1, 2003 – A man carrying two grenades hijacks a Cuban domestic airliner demanding that it fly to the United States; it landed in Havana due to insufficient fuel.
- May 3, 2007 – Two army recruits hijack a plane destined for Miami at José Martí International Airport in Havana. The men kill a hostage before being arrested prior to takeoff.
The list of Hijacker is taken from Wikipedia
News link Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Tags: American Airlines, Anti terrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, Ashanti Publishing Group, California, CONSTITUTIONS OF THE UNITED STATES, Federal Bureau of Prison, Fidel Castro, Gerald Leland Merity, Hate, Havana Cuba, Hijacker, Malcolm "X", MODERN DAY SLAVERY, Nation of Islam, racism, Rebellion, Religion and Spirituality
ASHANTI PUBLISHING GROUP is publishing the true life events of Muhammad Jalal Deen Akbar in “The Making of an Airplane Hijacker”. The article below was written by the Miami Herald. The Making of an Airplane Hijacker will be in bookstores in December. Reserve a copy at http://www.ashantipublishinggroup.com.
The Miami Herald
April 11, 1980. p. 16.
Cuba May Let U.S. Hijacker Go to a Moslem Country
From Herald Staff and Wire Reports
HAVANA – The man who hijacked an American Airlines jet to Cuba said Thursday he acted to escape racial and religious persecution in the United States, the official Cuban news agency reported.
A Cuban government broadcast said the hijacker expressed a desire to leave Cuba for a Moslem country, and that he would be allowed to do so.
The news agency, Prensa Latina identified the gunman as Gerald Leland Merity, 35, originally of Minneapolis, and said he dropped out of dental school at the University of San Francisco last year.
The University of San Francisco has no dental school, but the University of California-San Francisco confirmed that a man by that name attended the university from the fall of 1997 until January 1980, when he dropped out.
Prensa Latina said Merity was a converted Moslem who uses the name Muhammad Jalal Deen Akbar.
IF HE is permitted to leave the island and go wherever he wants, it would mark the first time since hijackings to Cuba began more than a decade ago that Cuba hasn’t prosecuted the hijacker, the State Department said in Washington.
However, State Department officials said late Thursday that had received assurances from Havana that the hijacker would be prosecuted.
Michael Kozak, a legal affairs specialist for the State Department, noted that an executive agreement between the United States and Cuba requiring each country to prosecute hijackers lapsed in April 1977 at the Cuban government’s request.
Nevertheless, the Cubans have continued to abide by its terms, Kozak said, although their motive in doing so may be less to cooperate with the United States than to discourage air piracy.
“Cuba didn’t want to become a haven for crazies,” Kozak said.
STATE DEPARTMENT sources said that if this latest hijacker is released, it could be seen as an attempt by Cuba to “tweak us.”
Cuban President Fidel Castro has been complaining for years that it appears unfair that he prosecutes hijackers while the United States has never been able to successfully prosecute a Cuban boat hijacker.
“But in this case,” one State Department official said, “it could just be his way of showing to the world that there are people who want to come into Cuba just as much as there are people who want to get out.”
Prensa Latina quoted Merity as saying “In the United States, slavery formally ended a little more than 100 years ago, but it continues informally. Until a short time ago, we blacks had to struggle against the Ku Klux Klan, but now we have to do it against the police that accost us, and against the Nazi Party.”
An FBI source in Miami said that aboard the Boeing 727 during the 10-hour hijacking from Ontario, Calif., to Havana on Wednesday, the grimy-clad gunman “behaved more like a criminal fugitive than a political fugitive.”
“Political terrorists generally are verbose and spend the time telling their hostages of their resentment and their reason for their action,” the source said. “This man said nothing at all.”
The FBI prepared composite sketches of the hijacker in an effort to identify him.
THE GUNMAN leaped a fence at Ontario International Airport near Los Angeles on Wednesday morning. He entered the door of the plane being readied for a flight to Chicago, held a .45-caliber pistol to the head of a flight attendant and demanded to be taken to Havana.
The plane and its crew of seven made a refueling stop at Dallas-Fort Worth Airport and then flew directly to Havana’s Jose Marti Airport. The plane was allowed to return to Miami Wednesday night.
It was the second hijacking to Cuba this year. On Jan. 25, a Delta Airlines plane from Atlanta was forced to fly to Havana by a man later identified as Samuel Alden Ingram. Ingram remains in Cuba.
This article was compiled from reports by Tom Fiedler of The Herald’s Washington bureau and by United Press International.
Tags: 49ers, Brett Favre, Champion, Denver Broncos, Football, Making history, Monday Night Football, NFL, Passing Record Broken, Peyton Manning, Quarterback, Record Passes Thrown, Spinal Injury, Super Bowl, Superbowl, Touchdown Passes
Alright I’ll be the first to admit I was wrong…This time! I thought after Peyton Manning was traded to the Denver Broncos he was going to play the second string quarterback mentor to some young first round draft pick out of college. Boy oh boy was I wrong. But don’t forget I was the one who said that Tebow would not make it as an NFL quarterback. Could somebody tell me where the University of Florida’s superstar quarterback is hanging his jock strap these days? One thing I can say about the kid is, he’s got heart. You can’t take that away from him. Hang in there Tebow, there is always work at the post office. But back to Peyton Manning “Denver Broncos” Quarterback. If I’m not mistaken Manning threw four; count ‘em not 1, not 2, not 3, but 4 touchdown passes to place himself in a league of PEYTON his own.
Can you image how the Indianapolis Colts owner feel must be felling about right now? Here is an athlete who underwent what appeared to be a career ending spinal surgery. Manning underwent an anterior cervical fusion of one joint. I honestly thought his career was over. Let’s face it, Manning was never the quickest Philly out the stables. So to expect him to come back from this type of procedure seemed a bit far fetched at best. Not only did Manning win the 2013 NFL MVP, he also broke both the single-season passing touchdown (55) and passing yard (5,477) records on the way to leading the Broncos to Super Bowl XLVIII—all in just his second season back from injury.
After an impressive game against the 49ers Manning stands alone at the top of the list after an 8-yard touchdown pass to Demaryius Thomas with 3:09 remaining in the first half. The pass gave the Broncos a 21-3 lead in the game. Manning finished with four touchdown throws to run his career total to 510 in what ended as a 42-17 win. I am officially a Peyton Manning Fan. Just in case you think I’m a wagon jumper, take a look at what Manning had to overcome to be where he is right now and then make your assessment.
The Surgery: Anterior Cervical Discectomy and Fusion
After undergoing other, less-invasive procedures aimed at reducing pain, Manning underwent an anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in 2011. Surgeons use ACDFs to alleviate pressure from a bulging cervical intervertebral disc—the cartilage cushion between two spinal vertebrae.
Two different types of material compose an intervertebral disc. On the outside sits a ring of relatively tough material known as the annulus fibrosus. Inside of it lies the jelly-like nucleus pulposus.
For a better picture, imagine a jelly donut. The jelly represents the nucleus pulposus, and the bread represents the annulus fibrosus.
With enough time and trauma, intervertebral discs can wear down. Eventually, the nucleus pulposus leaks through a weakened annulus fibrosus—or “herniates”—causing inflammation and placing pressure on nerves as they leave the spinal cord.
Compressed nerves in the cervical spine can then lead to weakness, numbness and pain in the neck, arms or shoulders. Ideally, by removing the offending disc, doctors cut out the root cause of the problem, thereby allowing the damaged nerves to regenerate and regain function.
Tags: Blast From the Past, C'MON MAN, Dallas Football Team, Disciplinary Actions, Football commissioner, NFL, NFL Football, RB Joseph Randle
All right let’s see what’s new in the news today. All this talk about a possible Ebola outbreak has got me on edge. Dre and Nicki Minaj did their thang at the BET Hip Hop Awards, a shot goes out to Actress Elizabeth Pena’s family members, our prayers are with them. It appears Elizabeth Pena passed away this week of natural causes at the age of 55 after a brief illness. Man…I can see 55 in the very near future. I’m talking like right around the corner. Well, maybe not right around the corner, I mean I don’t feel as though I’ve knocked out half of a century just yet. (SERIOUSLY IN DENIAL) Damn! It seemed like yesterday I was in the mall playing pacman, eating a box of M&M’s, with one hand and holding a dollar ticket for the madina in the other. It may sound cliche’ but “those were the good ole days”. The only thing we had to worry about back then was someone stepping on our new Converse Sneakers we spent bleaching the night before. Or who to sit next to at the school pep rally on Friday. I’m sorry, but the nostalgia from the past sometimes take hold and I can’t help but reminiscence.
I have a stack of articles on my desk and for some reason the ink appears to be running off the pages. Don’t you get tired of seeing the same headlines? Isis is the new al qaeda on steroids, Talor Swift releases a new pop track “Out Of The Woods”, and the Sentencing Commission keeps dicking around with the federal inmates about changing the “Good Time” credit they received. Oh and by the way, I see the elephant in the room…Somebody pass me a bucket, I think I’m going to throw up. Just when I thought I’ve heard it all. I am over ran by reports of a Dallas
Cowboy Football Player; not to be confused with–“A Player”, is caught red handed with his hands in the cookie jar. “C’MON MAN!” What in the hell was Joseph Randle thinking? I think we all may be guilty for plucking a grape off the stem of a bunch in the fruit section of your neighborhood grocery store. Or being reminded by the store clerk of the grocery store the magazine you’ve been reading in line hasn’t been paid for before checking out.
Not trying to get in the brother’s business or anything but I’m certain he received a hefty salary for carrying a deflated object made out of pig hide. His job entails, eating good, maintaining his health, and mastering the art of avoiding 360 men covered in armor. So will somebody please tell me why in the hell did Cowboys RB Joseph Randle get caught shoplifting? These athletes are beginning to get on my nerves. Don’t they realize with moe’ money comes moe’ problems. Which means they have to do a little more to stay under the grid. I realize money isn’t everything, but lets face it, these guys are making ends meet like a mu#@%$er. It appears Dallas Cowboys backup running back Joseph Randle’s Monday arrest for shoplifting will cost him a significant fine in the range of $29,117, the amount the second-year back earns per week on his scheduled $495,000 base salary this season.
Randle was charged with a misdemeanor Class B theft of $50 to $500, according to Frisco, Texas, police, for shoplifting a tester bottle of cologne and a two-pack of underwear at a suburban mall. “C’MON MAN!” Are you kidding me? Life is too short, we have to sometimes take a break from our mundane lifestyles and live a little. We can’t get so caught up in making a living, that we forget about life. This is your man Maestro…I’m out!
Tags: AFRICA, Airborne, contagious bodily fluids, Containment, deaths, Disease, Ebola virus, H1N1, Human Immune System, Protocol, Quarantine, SARS, Second Dallas Nurse Infected, sickness, Sierra Leone, Swine Flu, United States, West Africa, widespread outbreak Hospital
This is none other than Maestro doing a follow up on the Ebola epidemic which has found it’s way into boarders of the United States. Here are some MYTHS ABOUT EBOLA YOU SHOULD KNOW ABOUT. Allow me to invade your space for a few moments to help you better understand what this Ebola Virus is all about. I feel compelled to weigh in on this discussion to add a bit of color to help combat the whitewash. First of all, I want to be measured in this conversation. I am not an expert on infectious disease and know even less about the protocol to contain such a formidable virus. I recommend that if you feel any symptoms related to the outbreak, go to your nearest emergency room.
Fears that a widespread outbreak of Ebola in the United States were heightened today as health officials revealed that a second Dallas nurse infected with Ebola flew on an airplane just a day before being placed in isolation. And as troubling as this second case may be, especially in terms of possible lapses in protocol, it also could serve as a much-needed wake-up call to public health officials nationwide about how vigilant they must be, experts said.
“The issue is with the healthcare workers at hospital in Dallas who were exposed while caring for a sick individual. The average person does not have to be concerned,” said Dr. William Schaffner, chair of preventive medicine at Vanderbilt University Medical Center in Nashville, Tennessee.
The Ebola outbreak in West Africa has reportedly claimed more than 4,000 lives, and World Health Organization officials believe the true death toll could be far higher. An international response — including U.S. Military personal, as well as assistance from several other countries and nongovernmental organizations — has begun, yet global concern about the virus is spreading. So with all of the confusion and media spin with the latest development how worried should we be? I mean, what are the risks involved? Let’s separate fact from fiction in this crisis and get a better idea what we are facing. I don’t know about you, but I ascribe to the idiom, “Believe nothing of what you hear and only half of what you see”.
1. Ebola won’t spread in rich countries.
Until nurse Teresa Romero Ramos contracted Ebola in Madrid, the wealthy countries of Europe, North America and Asia seemed confident that the virus could be contained in advanced medical facilities. As Tom Frieden, director of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, put it after the first U.S. Ebola case was confirmed in Dallas: “We’re stopping it in its tracks in this country.” Such assurances help calm people’s nerves but may be overstated. No system of protection is 100 percent. The Spanish government has concluded that Ramos got infected as she was removing her protective suit, touching her face before disinfecting her hands.
Like Ebola, the SARS virus spreads in hospitals, primarily through physical contact with contaminated fluids. As SARS spread across Asia in 2003, some hospitals, including in Hong Kong, had large numbers of health workers infected, while nearby facilities with similar populations of SARS patients had no employee infections.
Hubris is the greatest danger in wealthy countries — a sort of smug assumption that advanced technologies and emergency-preparedness plans guarantee that Ebola and other germs will not spread. It was hubris that left Toronto’s top hospitals battling SARS in 2003, long after the virus was conquered in poorer Vietnam. It was hubris that led the World Health Assembly in 2013 to cut the WHO’s outbreak-response budget in favor of more programs to treat cancer and heart disease. And it is hubris that causes politicians to routinely slash public health budgets every time the microbes seem under control, only to cry out in desperation when a new epidemic appears.
2. Post-9/11 emergency preparedness has the United States ready to fight Ebola.
In the years after the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, and the anthrax mailings to political and military targets, the George W. Bush administration ordered a massive overhaul of bio-terrorism preparedness. From the CDC and Defense Department down to rural community clinics, doctors, nurses, hospitals and rapid-response teams went through drills imagining the arrival of pandemics or terrorist bio-attacks. Routines were put in place that supposedly prepared every health department in America for the arrival of a highly contagious disease. Military and health agencies were given billions of dollars to create rapid diagnostics, vaccines and cures for highly pathogenic organisms. On every list of biological organisms of concern was Ebola. So it is reasonable to assume that billions of dollars and countless exercises later, the United States is prepared.
But most of the training — both military and civilian — imagined the biological equivalent of an attack, in which something evil is found; responders from police, fire and health departments swoop in wearing hazard suits; and boom: The infected people are found, isolated and treated, and the danger to the community is gone. Even in 2005, when the White House feared that a highly virulent pandemic strain of bird flu would sweep across America,preparedness plans focused on isolating a germ and its carriers the way a bomb or chemical weapon might be isolated and defused. Missing was preparation for a long haul of contagious patient treatment, with health workers repeatedly exposed to possible contamination.
Today, in the face of requests for help in West Africa, the answer from the U.S. Agency for International Development is:”There isn’t an existing cadre of people who have experience in treating this epidemic.”
3. It could go airborne.
Yes, the virus is mutating — a recent paper in Science shows that more than 300 mutations have occurred. But what is now a virus that latches onto receptors outside endothelial cells lining the circulatory system won’t change into one that can attach to the alveolar cells of the lungs. That’s a genetic leap in the realm of science fiction.
Viruses mutate for two reasons: random error and natural selection. Random transformation from a virus solely adapted to infect cells that line blood vessels into one that can attach to entirely different classes of proteins found in the lungs borders on the impossible. Natural selection can overcome the impossible if great pressure is put on a viral population, forcing it to alter or die out. But in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, there is no such pressure on Ebola: The virus is spreading readily and infecting thousands of people without any need to change into a radically new form.
Far more realistic and perhaps equally worrisome is that the outer coat of the virus — the parts that are recognized by the human immune system and trigger production of antibodies and killer cells that devour viruses — might respond to immune system attack by mutating their outer proteins. If Ebola made such an adaptation, it might mean that people who have survived the disease could be reinfected, and vaccines now in the pipeline could prove ineffective.
4. Travel bans would keep Ebola from spreading in the United States.
The only evidence that any travel ban in the 21st century slowed down viral spread occurred right after the 9/11 attacks, when airports in the eastern United States were shut down for days, and few Americans traveled far from home for several weeks. Possibly as a result, the influenza season was delayed about two weeks in 2001. But the flu eventually came.
Many nations have banned flights from other countries in recent years in hopes of blocking the entry of viruses, including SARS and H1N1 “swine flu.” None of the bans were effective, and the viruses gained entry to populations regardless of what radical measures governments took to keep them out.
The days of Ellis and Angel islands screening out diseases effectively disappeared with the jet age.
5. A vaccine is around the corner.
There are several vaccine candidates in development right now, two of which recently got green lights from a special WHO scientific panel. That go-ahead means the potential vaccines
are now being tested on human volunteers. If after a few weeks of such testing the vaccines are shown to cause no undue side effects, the next phase of trials will be carried out, probably in the epidemic countries, to see if the vaccines can protect people from the virus. If it’s obvious in that phase that the vaccine is protecting people from Ebola, the products move to the final, and most difficult, phase — a clinical trial comparing vaccine vs. placebo in hundreds of people, also in the epidemic area.
The No. 1 question I hear privately from vaccine manufacturers regarding Ebola is: How will people dressed like space aliens in their protective gear get terrified, healthy people in Liberia or Sierra Leone to stand still for a poke in the arm?
At best, a vaccine might be ready for final testing by spring 2015 — and that question of trust will still remain.